... or read more about Charpentier's autograph manuscripts
Read my comments
about another article in the Actes, 2007
Laurent Guillo's PAP forms and the paper
on which they appear
listed by order of the PAP
It is a very complex thing, describing the
interaction between the 17 PAP formes identified in Marc-Antoine
Charpentier's Mélanges and the watermarks that permit us to identify
two dozen different types of paper.
An early attempt to pull this evidence together
was the concordance I drew up in the summer
of 2007, when Laurent Guillo's list of all the PAP's became available. Since
then, I have tried another approach, which I hope will be useful to others. I
made a table that not only shows the PAP number, watermark, and cahiers, but
that also shows a revised dating of each paper.(1)
Note: The point of departure for the table is Guillo's list, pp. 52-54. (From
that list, I deleted repeat citations of a given paper that refer to the two
halves of a single sheet.)
At the far right, the "paper" code I have taken to using for each of the 45
distinct printed papers. Forty-five "papers"? Yes indeed, because there are 45
different combinations of PAP's and watermarks, each combination associated with
a relatively brief moment in Charpentier's career.
I want to emphasize that the chart is not
definitive. In fact, I expect that it will be necessary to modify it as new
evidence is available. These modifications will be added in color and footnoted.
(Please do not wonder why there are a few blank squares in the left-hand column,
the PAP's: the blank squares mean nothing, they are freaks of the internet
A few comments about how to use
PAP numbers tell us a great deal about the
music-printing business. That is, we can literally to see the different
papers on which the print-shop used that forme. In addition, the
dates permit us to date the use of that form. It turns out that several
forms were used for at least a decade.
- However, since a
specific PAP form sometimes appears sporadically in the Mélanges
for a full decade, by itself the PAP-number provides only a very general
dating for a specific cahier.
- By contrast, the
different brands of paper in the
Mélanges rarely continue for more than a year or two; and they often
appear in both series of notebooks for that relatively short time,
thereby permitting us to assert that cahiers in one series are contemporary
with cahiers in the other.. When combined with internal evidence in the
cahier itself, the brand of paper can therefore permit rather close dating
of a work, a cahier, or even a group of cahiers. That said, relying on
watermarks alone, as we have done for several decades, produced some odd
results. Take paper I: it appears in cahiers dating from 1683-84,
but it also turns up in notebooks copied out in Charpentier's youthful hand
in 1672-73! Did the paper lie on a shelf somewhere, for a decade? Or take
all that Jesuit paper (†),
especially the scattered sheets that Charpentier used to repair earlier
notebooks: does it all date from the period 1688-1698?
PAPs and watermarks are linked (as in the
right-hand column), it becomes clear that all paper I is not the
same. The paper I of the early 1670s was printed with form PAP-84,
but the paper I of the 1680s was printed with PAP-26. In sort,
although these sheets were produced by the same paper mill and bear the same
watermarks, they are for all intents and purposes different papers!
As for the Jesuit paper that we once treated monolithically, it now can be
subdivided into several datable groups: papers †/25
(1682) and †/70
(circa 1690) plus the hand-ruled sheets that predominate in the 1690s.
- The dates proposed in
the right-hand column reflect the most recent evidence, especially the
printer's forms identified by Laurent Guillo and the handwriting changes
presented by C. Jane Gosine. It is essential to remember that these dates do
not reflect the date of composition. They show the date when
Charpentier used that specific paper,
sometimes to make a new cahier but sometimes to repair, recopy, or rework an
||XXV, XXVI, XXVII, XXVIII
||5, 13, 20, 29, 30, 40
36, 37, XXXV
||28, XVIII, XXXIII
||1675? and 1682
||VII, VIII, 27, 58, 59
||1, 2, 3, 4, I, II
||41, XLI, XLII
||7, 10, 11, XIII
||1672-73 and 1675-76
||7, 11, 12, 13, 14
||1681 or later (9)
||8, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24,
||25, 26, 28
||XV, XVI, XVII, "I"
||29, 30, 31, 32, XXIII, XXIV, XXIX
||XXX, XXXI, XXXII
||42, 43a, XLVI
||43a, 43b, 44, 45, 46, XLIV, XLV, XLVI,
||42, XLIV, XLVIII, XLIX
||46, 47, XLIX
||III, IV, V
1. Guillo relied on dating
worked out in the 1980s and 1990s. Thanks chiefly to his data about PAP's, this
crude dating can be refined. The Musings cited in subsequent notes show how
these new dates were determined.
2. Paper 6 bears
Jean-Baptiste Colbert's coat of arms; see my "Jean-Baptiste Colbert: un
protecteur de Marc-Antoine Charpentier?" Marc-Antoine Charpentier, un
musicien retrouvé (Sprimont: Mardaga, 2005), ed. C. Cessac, p. 117-20,
3. The watermarks on fols.
20-21 and 24-26 were to dim to permit identification.
4. See my
Musing on this Jesuit paper and its probable
5. See my Musing about
"red flags," and also the
Musing about some doubts about paper G/26
6. See my Musing on
Musing on this Jesuit paper and its probable date.
7. The watermarks were
illegible on this isolated sheet printed with PAP-76.
8. In cahier 5 this paper is
used with paper †/25, which can be dated as 1684.
my comments about paper G/82 and G/26 in cahier
10. Paper printed with
PAP-83 first appears in the Mélanges in 1674 and the form was still
being used by the printer in 1684. During that decade 5 different papers were
printed by this form.
11. The watermark on fols.
76-77 was too faint to read.
12. Note how long a
printer's forme could last: PAP-84 first turns up in the Mélanges
in 1672, and it was still in use in 1682. Over the course of that decade, it was
used to print staves on 5 different papers.
13. Form PAP-85 appears in
the Mélanges for only 2 years, but it was used for 2 different papers.
14. Note how long PAP-86
was in service: from 1679 to the late 1680's, during which time it was used to
print staves on 5 different brands of paper.